8:00am to 8:30am
Welcome to the Research on Teaching and Learning Summit!
8:30am to 8:50am
9:00am to 9:50am
A 30-year old faculty development center faced the need to present acceptable metrics to academic affairs and IT, their two primary financial sponsors, which have very different ways of approaching value. We created an evaluation structure that was accepted by both. This integrates our experience, an overview of the evaluation, the preliminary results, and our next stages in improvement into an interactive and fun meta-analysis of the challenges and possibilities for creating meaningful metrics for real improvement and motivation at Centers for Teaching and Learning that also meet (or exceed) the expectations of diverse sponsors.
Team activities and projects are commonly employed in undergraduate and graduate courses, in part to prepare students for the team-based nature of various employment settings. However, instructors are often ill-equipped to support student teams, assess contributions to group work, and manage difficult team dynamics. We present four key strategies for integrating team development into courses with examples and data from a research methods course including: 1) setting the foundation, 2) peer evaluations; 3) team reflections; and 4) self-reflection. Participants will discuss the challenges and facilitators for supporting team development and brainstorm ways to integrate team development activities into their courses.
This presentation engages participants in a critical discussion on ways in which faculty design and select measures to assess and guide student learning. Instructors can assess understanding in several ways, including the use of oral language, collaborative assignments, questioning, writing, projects, performances, and tests (Fisher & Frey, 2007). Participants will see a variety of innovative examples that they can easily integrate into their courses for a variety of purposes.
When students use a green screen or other innovative programs to design digital stories, they illustrate concepts creatively and see the curriculum from new perspectives. We will view digital stories students created and discuss their reflections on this collaborative experience. Digital stories align with Dewey’s Experiential Learning, and we will explore the ways digital stories can be used to enhance student engagement. An overview of green screen techniques and highlights of a digital story project will lead to opportunities to create digital stories and a discussion of practical applications for digital stories in an array of academic disciplines.
10:00am to 10:50am
This exploratory research uses a mixed methods survey design to evaluate business students’ attitudes following participation in a team-building exercise. Qualitative results identify themes related to student perceptions of the exercise, including those that address team needs associated with Tuckman’s forming stage of team development. Additionally, quantitative results indicate the relative effectiveness of the exercise in achieving the instructor’s goals for the exercise. Based on the study’s findings, the authors discuss the utility of adopting a mixed methods survey strategy for evaluating team-building exercise outcomes and offer suggestions for instructor implementation.
Practitioners of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) have been called guest scholars; tourists “traveling outside of their home disciplines, nations, methodologies, communities, and even languages” (Chick & Poole, 2014, p. 1). As such, it can be difficult to navigate in this unfamiliar and diverse setting where research methods and traditions are as varied as the disciplines that are represented. Grounded in best practice and my own experience as an editor, reviewer, researcher, and SoTL mentor, in this session we will share experiences and discuss how to avoid ten common mistakes made by those who are new to SoTL.
Across disciplines, instruction at the introductory level relies largely on Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs). This session introduces a three-tier mentorship model implemented at Georgia State University that integrates peer, supervisory, and faculty mentorship for Introductory Biology GTAs. This program successfully clarified expectations for first-time instructors training to become GTAs and provided a sense of community leading to improvements in teaching self-efficacy. Attendees in this session will learn the various steps in our mentorship model and decide if they would like to implement it at their respective institutions. Strategies on filing an IRB, data collection, and analysis will also be discussed.
PowerPoint presentations are a standard feature of most college and high school courses. However, studies of educational outcomes show that this technology does not consistently improve student learning, which raises doubts about the effectiveness of prevailing practices. A comprehensive review was performed to determine the best educational approaches for using PowerPoint. The findings suggest that educators need to rethink the design and the role of PowerPoint presentations to achieve better educational outcomes. The presentation will address common PowerPoint presentation problems. Evidence-based solutions will be given for increasing student engagement and higher-order learning.
To impact student success in science and math courses, several instructors have adopted the assessment methodology specifications grading. Using this approach, students control their grades through multiple attempts (with limitations) on assessments of course objectives that clearly define core skills and knowledge requisite for success. In this presentation, we present the ways in which we have implemented this methodology, the lessons learned over the last 2 years during implementation, and suggestions on how this methodology can be adapted to a variety of courses and subject areas. We also will present data on student demographics, student achievement, and student beliefs.
11:00am to 11:50am
Metacognitive instructors are aware of their students’ engagement in learning and their learning achievements. They use this awareness to guide their pedagogical choices and interactions. At this time, however, the vast majority of research on metacognition has focused on students being metacognitive about their learning processes. This keynote will share some thoughts on why we should start to also focus our research and faculty development efforts on metacognitive instruction. It will include some results from a multi-institutional study on metacognitive instruction and some techniques by which instructors can become more metacognitive in their practice of teaching.
12:00pm to 12:50pm
1:00pm to 1:50pm
In large campus settings with emerging institutional support for SoTL, it is important for educational developers to connect with emerging and established microcultures of SoTL. Moreover, such settings offer unique opportunities to build innovative collaborations with groups traditionally separated from SoTL work, colleges of education (COEs). This session will discuss an innovative partnership between a COE and Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL) to create the Emerging SoTL Scholar Award. A panel of CTL and COE leaders and award recipients will lead an interactive discussion on supporting and recognizing SoTL scholars and building campus partnerships to promote a SoTL culture.
This session will focus on strategies that help students overcome avoidance when considering post-graduation plans. Research was conducted that looked at specific teaching techniques and their outcomes for students in a senior capstone class. Findings from this study can be used to shape future teaching practices and ultimately help students experience less fear of their career.
Student engagement with content is an essential factor in promoting stated learning outcomes. However, few SoTL research studies include descriptions of the type/s, duration, and quality of that engagement. Lacking such descriptions: a) raises questions about the fidelity of planned instructional methods, and b) limits the researcher's ability to understand how a study's results occured. The purpose of this session is to present methods for observing and analyzing student engagement for learning to verify the implementation of instruction and to increase explanatory power in descriptive and experimental SoTL research. Examples of how to measure student engagement will be presented for the delivery of both classroom and media-based instruction.
This presentation highlights the changes made in an Introduction to Psychology course in order to incorporate the high impact practice of collaborative assignments and projects. Students are randomly assigned into peer groups at the beginning of the semester, and they complete all assignments (including exams) in these groups. The logistics of implementing this team-based approach will be shared, along with the results of a course analysis between this newly designed course and how it was previously taught. Teaching this course with a collaborative emphasis has improved DFW rates, student evaluations of instructor, and enhanced the overall student learning experience.
A known barrier to effective interprofessional education is the reality that complex schedules make it difficult to have face-to-face meetings and classes. We piloted an online collaborative learning experience with students from three different disciplines; nursing, health informatics, and health services administration. Using a common integral component of health care, electronic health records, we joined students from three of their required courses into online interdisciplinary teams and provided assignments using various records from an electronic health record simulation. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluative data will be shared as pre-post experience and comparative findings from among the three health disciplines.
2:00pm to 2:50pm
Student learning occurs in a variety of capacities and levels, both inside and outside of the traditional college classroom although students may avoid resources and learning opportunities. A collaboration between a Student Affairs leadership development director and an art professor combined co-curricular support with classroom lessons to bridge the gap and create a comprehensive learning experience. This interactive session shows how a values-based activity was incorporated into course assignments helping students engage in personal reflection and applications. We will show how this exercise can be adapted to a variety of academic disciplines with students at various stages of degree completion.
The panel will share best practices regarding holistic, analytic and single-point grading, creative uses for rubrics, and using assessment tools to better match students’ and professors’ expectations. Essays are formative assessments that, when evaluated using clearly expressed objectives, provide both students and professors with valuable feedback regarding learning objectives. But, which path of assessment is best to follow? Holistic, analytic and single-point assessment will be discussed, and attendees will see visual representations of our assessment tools.
A faculty learning community (FLC) focused on the progression of learning throughout the five pre-nursing science courses. Following course content alignment, instructor recommendations were compiled. The FLC investigated the impact of course sequencing on student success and identified the need for students to have knowledge of problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogy. PBL is frequently used in healthcare professional programs because educators recognize that students separate “theoretical knowledge” (the ‘knowing that’) from “practical knowledge” (the ‘knowing how’) leading to a ‘theory-practice gap.’ Presenters will discuss the course alignment process and PBL tutoring program design through examples developed for Anatomy & Physiology I.
This T&L session will share the results of a qualitative case study conducted with first year undergraduate students enrolled at Life University in Marietta, GA. The research study entitled Integrating Academic Skills with Life skills used the 7 Habits of Highly Effective College Students curriculum to extend the content delivered in first-year courses. The study collected data on self-efficacy and persistence to degree completion for incoming college students at risk of not completing their degree program.
The key questions of SoTL cannot be answered without student input, and often can be better answered with student partnership. The Students as Partners (SaP) movement harnesses the expertise of the learner to advance teaching and learning in higher education. Drawing on major SoTL scholars and critical pedagogues, this session will explore how this harnessing of different expertise can make SoTL more equitable and inclusive. Participants will use a theoretical framework to explore some cases of partnership in SoTL, think through how these cases have both exemplified and contributed to inclusive SoTL, and ideate their own future SoTL partnerships.
3:00pm to 3:50pm
This session focuses on specific strategies faculty in all disciplines may employ to bring content about the UN Sustainable Development Goals into their courses. Professing that sustainability should be a topic of instruction for all undergraduates regardless of major or field, the presenters will share their approaches and content. They represent seven diverse disciplines (architecture, biology, construction engineering, English, geography, marketing, and math education) and routinely include sustainability content in their classes. In some cases, they have developed whole courses that focus on sustainability; in others, they incorporate sustainability via examples, texts, and course modules.
Felten (2013) recommends students as partners in the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) as one of five principles of good SoTL practice. In this session participants will gain skills and knowledge to expand student engagement in SoTL. This collage presentation interweaves the process/product accounts of three a/r/trographers (Irwin, 2013) seeking a previously missing component in visual assessment work: student voice and engagement. Using an a/r/tography approach participants will learn how this methodology can significantly expand student engagement in curriculum design and development, undergraduate research, and reflective practice. Throughout the presentation, participants will be invited to “influence map” their learning.
Whether to break up content into separate components to enable students to develop mastery over it can be a crucial decision in teaching, depending on the topic. However, with either decision, how the material is presented (introduced) to begin with is arguably the crucial starting point to lead into a successful process for students to reach a level of mastery. After presenting two contrasting teaching situations and how I addressed them (steps in my Logic class (for evaluating syllogisms) and worldview categories from my World Religions class), I provide attendees with an opportunity to apply the new principles to specific examples from English and Math classes.
One of the bottlenecks for faculty in implementing their first SoTL projects is submitting the expansive Institutional Review Board (IRB) application. To assist faculty through this bottleneck, the Univeristy of Georgia (UGA) Center for Teaching and Learning piloted an umbrella IRB protocol in one faculty learning community. In this interactive session, participants will learn about the process and parameters by which this was worked out with the UGA Human Subjects Office and discuss the scalability of umbrella IRB protocols for Centers for Teaching and Learning.
Research on student success emphasizes the importance of creating learning environments that allow students to feel a sense of belonging to the University (Tinto, 2017; Strayhorn, 2012, Kuh, Kinzie, Schuh, & Whitt, 2005). Furthermore, an emerging body of literature points to the connection between belonging, motivation, learning, and success, particularly the role in-class experiences play in promoting these (Zumbrunn, McKim, Buhs, & Hawley, 2014). Although our subject-matter expertise provides a foundation for teaching content, this workshop offers practical strategies for designing teaching environments that evoke a sense of belonging for students that ultimately enhances their learning and bolsters academic success.
4:00pm to 5:30pm
Researchers, educators, politicians, and journalists debate, compare, and analyze the gaps in achievement between American students and Asian students; and even though there is evidence to support multiple theories, one theory that has not been thoroughly investigated is the correlation between language writing systems, literacy, and math ability. Theoretically speaking, if neural networks “allow us to recognize and code space, develop tools and navigate, thus decide and plan ahead,” this could lead to the conclusion that students in Eastern countries achieve at higher rates in mathematics because there must be an inherent neurological difference in how mathematics is processed.
We will explore educational innovations for enhancing student engagement, such as the flipped classroom, Socratic methods, practical learning applications, and educational games. These innovations align with Boyer’s model and Dewey’s emphasis on experiential learning. They promote interest in essential skills and prepare students to meet academic challenges. These educational innovations tailor the learning process to individual students and promote reasons to invest energy in developing a successful understanding of a particular topic. We will share our experiences with these innovations in history, chemistry, and education, provide opportunities for experiencing them, and discuss practical applications for various disciplines.
Interdisciplinary studies foster an ability to cross disciplinary boundaries in viewing societal issues and concerns from the integration of combined insights drawn from multiple disciplines. Our initial analyses show indications for students to expand their conceptual knowledge base around the topic of societal problems studied through an interdisciplinary research project. Additional data from our ongoing project will be shared on students’ own assessments of their growth on competencies associated with interdisciplinary engagements as a demonstration of the potential of interdisciplinary pedagogy to foster and promote the skills and knowledge undergraduates need to become informed and responsible activists.
In an effort to improve student engagement in a biology laboratory course, we restructured a cookbook laboratory exercise on osmosis and diffusion into a multi-week, inquiry-based module. In this session we will share our processes of planning, implementation, and assessment of student performance and engagement. We will also discuss how to assess student writing using Bloom’s Taxonomy. This session will be useful for educators interested in integrating inquiry into their classes. We will discuss training instructors, both faculty and GTA, on student-centered pedagogy utilized in inquiry laboratories.
Buzzwords. They create a mytique and and aura that we often use to wrap around us comfortably in an effort to be respected, revered, and awed. However, we are not doing much good for the betterment of society. We need to come down from the mountain with an increased ability to share the good news of technology in a way that all can understand, and so that all may benefit. Artificial Intelligence is once of those fields. In this talk we wish to demystify the field of AI and work to clearify what it can and cannot do. We will talk about how it can be used in very practical and exciting ways, where it is headed for the future, and how we can all get involved. It is not hyperbole to say that AI will shape all of our futures, so let's strive to understand it in a way that is helpful to everyone, brings everyone to the table, and shows the world what a difference excellent, empowering, yet humble teaching can make!
This poster describes an experiment in two identical online upper-division classes in spring 2019. I exposed the experimental group to Bloom’s Taxonomy, Dr. Stephen Chew’s five videos on “How to Get the Most out of Studying” and the work of Dr. Saundra McGuire. The control group had no interventions. Five activities comprised course grades: discussions, quizzes, a research draft, a research paper, and a summary post. Results showed that the experimental group scored higher in four of five categories by as much as 5%. The results suggest that a non-graded, minimalist introduction to metacognition can improve student performance.
With the proliferation of technology, the approach to education, teaching and learning, has shifted, potentially impacting student engagement in early education to graduate education. The purpose of this poster is to evaluate the impact of technology on teaching effectiveness and learning in collegiate classrooms. Much of the collateral used by publishers discuss changes in students’ approach to learning and propose methods which affect teaching and learning. This begs the question of who is really teaching the class – the professor or the publisher? Do efficiency gains for the teacher compensate for the potential loss of personal engagement, direct feedback, and learning?
Empathy has an important influence on business decisions and the actions of leaders in organizations. However, among students, empathy has ranked low in leadership trait rankings in previous studies. Can empathy be taught to students? How do students view empathy? Using a sample of undergraduate business students, we attempt to answer these research questions. The extent to which these types of traits can be taught will be addressed. Teachers are faced with the question of whether empathy should be taught in the classroom. Implications for researchers and teachers are discussed.
I have taught the gastrointestinal (GI) material for five years. It includes an overwhelming amount material which may not be as exciting to students as other systems. Last year I revamped my PowerPoint to engage the students and promote learning. In the past, the end of course evaluation evaluations would include comments from students about how overwhelming GI was. There were no such comments after implementing these changes. (Never fear, students still had suggestions for improvement, but not for GI).
The step-by-step instructions characteristic of cookbook labs limit the opportunity for student engagement in the experimentation process. In this session, we will describe how we developed a three-part guided inquiry lab to solve a real-world problem of trapping fruit flies. Attendees in this session will learn the various steps needed to implement our fruit fly module, including culturing the flies, building traps, and assessing students. Although we developed and tested this module for non-biology majors, strategies on modifying the module to fit the needs of your students will also be discussed.
The purpose of these study is to understand the effect of hands-on activities using ARM-based raspberry pi. Students will respond to the two surveys to answer the self-assessment grading before and after completing the hands-on activities during the semester. The results of this study would benefit us to understand the effect of hands-on activities using ARM-based Raspberry pi in laboratory learning comparing with the regular course based on book-and-lecture format.
Whereas assessing content learning is straight-forward, it’s more difficult to assess insights students gain as they apply their knowledge of a new process. In my scientific methods course, students design and conduct experiments to answer original research questions. As a reflective assignment, students address challenges and difficulties they encountered and share what they learned in the process. In my poster, I will show how metacognitive reflection can let the instructor see the value students attribute to the learning process and can help students assess their own growth in learning. This method is adaptable to experiential courses in other disciplines.
Biochemistry and chemistry are often compartmentalized making it difficult for the students to discern how the principles/concepts learnt in chemistry augment their understanding in biochemistry and recognize the uniting connection.
We designed a laboratory course titled ‘Macromolecules’ to address the issue with a two-fold strategy: (i) Designing individual experiments that focus on common cell biology/biochemistry techniques designed to zoom into the background chemistry so that students better correlate the microscale and macroscale events.
(ii) The individual experiments lead into a final experiment. The goal of this design was to expose students to rationale-driven design approach and train them to appreciate the big picture without ignoring the important details.
We then discuss the exercises used to meet the above goal and the proposed assessment and feedback strategies to evaluate student learning.
The current study investigated the impact of various study aids on students’ exam performance. Thirty-four students in an upper-level psychology course participated in the study. Students were provided or allowed to use various types of study aids for each of the four exams administered in the course. Specifically, students were allowed to generate and use their own notes for Exam 1; they completed practice quizzes in preparation for Exam 2; they were provided a detailed study guide for Exam 3; and they used a combination of all three aforementioned tools for Exam 4. A Friedman’s test was run to determine if there were differences in exam performance as study aids changed. The results show significant differences in exam performance across various time points as study tools changed.
Have your students ever complained that their assignments seem pointless? Do students seem disinterested in assignment topics, lecture, and class activities? Consider trying a learning community. Linking two essential college courses such as English 1101 and Psychology 1101 can overturn the common freshman complaint that their assignments are not meaningful or that they struggle to find personal engagement with the course. Strategies and data from the Fall of 2018 will be shared, along with student feedback, observations, and student assignments.
Student engagement is a key factor for successful teaching and learning. Methods to promote student engagement that connect students with curriculum, foster community, and boost communication skills will be discussed. Faculty from a variety of disciplines discuss ideas they have used for successful teaching and student engagement. Objectives, outcomes, and instructions for lessons that can be used in multiple disciplines will be shared.
Trying to find new ways to form and nurture community in your classroom? In this collaboration session, you will learn about a variety of ways to make alternative seating and makerspaces possible in your classroom. Experience the future of education as we engage in conversations about how the physical classroom is connected to the teaching and learning process for educators and students everywhere!
The purpose of this research is to examine student responses to reflective writing prompts after the completion of “light touch” mindset interventions. Drawing from a contemporary psychological framework – fixed versus growth mindset (Dweck, 2007) – quick, strategies used to foster growth mindset were implemented in a set of business classes. Following the implementation of each strategy, students responded to a set of related questions encouraging them to elaborate on the learning objectives and relate the material to their own personal experiences. Their responses shed light on the effectiveness of the interventions and whether they impacted students’ perceived mindsets.
Assessment of student learning is critical for assurance of learning and curriculum development. Institutions use various assessment methods, including the ETS Major Field Test, which is widely adopted across and outside the U.S. to assess student learning outcomes at program level. It is often administered in capstone classes taken by senior students. In our study we link this test with other learning assessments conducted within the institution(s) to explore the correlations. For example, institutional as well as overall academic performance, and performances in capstone class itself, in which students integrate and apply their previously learned knowledge in various disciplines.
Many faculty lack instrumentation skills outside of those used in their graduate studies. This faculty learning community hosted training sessions for interested faculty and students on the HPLC, GC-MS, ICP-MS, and AFM; wrote new or updated existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) for each instrument; developed an instrumentation decision tree; and performed a literature review of instrument applications for use in upper level chemistry courses. Training workshops and the literature review advanced faculty and student knowledge of each instrument. SOPs were informative and used for hands-on instrument operation in Analytical and Instrumental Chemistry, and as a teaching/assessment tool in Industrial Chemistry.
Simon Mwongela1, Ajay Mallia1, Chantelle Anfuso1, Sang Park1, Xiaoping Li1, Wenlin Huang1, Rashad Simmons1, Chantelle Anfuso1, Gillian Rudd1, Sharon Guan1, Michael Kirberger1, Kathryn Zimmermann1, Neelam Khan2
- Chemistry discipline School of Science and Technology, Georgia Gwinnett College
- Physics discipline School of Science and Technology, Georgia Gwinnett College
Researchers in the health professions have reported that participating in simulation is a worthwhile and realistic experience for students. These encounters enhance student’s confidence, skill development, and interpersonal communication. As educators, we strive to provide learning opportunities that foster knowledge acquisition and skill development. As the demographics of the United States change, it is essential students develop culturally competent knowledge, awareness, and skills in curricula. Although many programs emphasize an awareness of cultural competence, few integrate cultural skills, encounters, and assessments. This session will present effective ways to integrate cultural competence into the curricula- specifically through the use of simulation.
Experiential learning outside of the classroom setting is vital for current students in STEM majors to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Science faculty at teaching-focused institutions struggle to provide this aspect of education primarily due to limited resources, yet most acknowledge the positive outcome of providing out of classroom research opportunities to their students. This poster will provide examples and strategies to keep up with the overwhelming pressure placed upon faculty to provide research opportunities to undergraduate students with a lack of funding through creative collaborative efforts between the students and faculty.
WAC stands for “Writing Across the Curriculum.” It is a program or movement that concerns effective writing in all disciplines and classes in universities. A few years ago I took a WAC workshop at Kennesaw State University and learned about several writing issues from different theoretical approaches, for example, the distinction between writing to learn and writing to communicate, as well as several useful techniques to help students improve their writing. In this poster I will discuss how I used WAC guided writing assignments in a psychology class and will also present students’ evaluations of these writing assignments.
The purpose of this poster is to (1) discuss what community engagement is, (2) to discuss the benefits of community engagement learning, (3) to discuss how to a community engagement project was added to a marketing class, (4) to discuss examples of other disciplines adding community engagement projects to their classes and (5) to provide tips and suggestions to faculty on how to add and implement a community engagement project to their classes. Overall, this presentation seeks to help faculty members learn more about community engagement projects and learn how to create and implement a community engagement project.
The presentation identifies ways the fields of interaction design, technical communication and fine arts share a common thread using quickly drawn visual imagery to convey ideas by way of rapid prototyping, or sketching, as a tool for ideation in the design process. The use of journey maps as a UX method in an interactive design class documenting a formal collaboration between KSU classes and the Museum of Design Atlanta is highlighted. It demonstrates how the methodologies of user experience (UX) and design thinking encourage empathy-driven design that allow researchers to understand the users’ perspectives.
This project evaluated student perceptions of specification grading using one-on-one interviews. Interview questions included topics such as expectations of specification grading, differences between specifications and traditional grading methods, expectations of amount of time studying, and advantages and disadvantages of specifications and traditional grading methods. Session participants will be provided with information from the student’s perception regarding specification grading methodology. This type of information will assist participants in decision making regarding use of this type of assessment methodology as well as an understanding of advantages and disadvantages based on what students experience.
This project documents an engaged pedagogy for graduate students, which puts a real-world experience into students’ hands in the practice space of the classroom. Through collection of qualitative perceptions, the project contributes to SoTL, showing that the project helps students gain understanding of legal concepts and clarity of the value of learning about the law. The ongoing classroom engagement and collection of comments continue to reveal an opportunity to bring critical thinking and real-world experience together to aid students in understanding how the law can be an asset, and demonstrates a valuable resource of successful real-world application of the law.
Easily create projects and the corresponding grade rubrics for that project using a custom created Filemaker Database called EZ Grader. Keep projects, assignments and grade rubrics in one place and available at your fingertips. Rethink how you organize your course, score projects and distribute the grades using a custom database to catalog all the information for you.
Help your student’s improve performance by providing standard requirements and scoring forms. Speed up distribution of grade reports using email and eliminate time consuming paperwork filing. Keep up to date progress on running student average at any time in the course.
When teaching the undergraduate intermediate finance course or MBA corporate finance core course, often instructors must provide students an overview and summary of where the financial literature stands on issues of capital structure. Most textbooks will barely cover the principles and facts without delving into the important findings in the literature. The main reason is shortage of class time to adequately and fairly do a literature review. This article surveys the extant literature on this important corporate finance topic and provides a brief summary that can be easily covered in a class period after students are asked to read it before-hand.